The Iris Flower: Origins, Meaning, Symbolism, Colors, and Care Tips.

The iris flower is a popular gifting bloom and is highly valued for its appealing colors and unique structure. Perfect for brightening indoor and outdoor areas, these flowering perennials earn additional recognition for their versatility. Iris flowers also have an interesting story to tell and hold their own unique symbolism and origin story. Read on as we share everything there is to know about iris flower meaning, symbolism, history, origins, popular varietals, and more.

History and Origin of Iris Flowers 

History and Origins of Iris Flowers

Iris or known scientifically as Iris spp. is the largest genus of flowering plants under the Iridaceae botanical family. One of the most popular perennials that grow from bulbs or rhizomes, irises are widely cultivated across the globe as ornamentals in home and commercial gardens. 

But where does the iris flower initially come from? Several reports note that iris cultivation originated around 1749 BC in Egypt when King Thutmose III had conquered Syria. Back then, Syria was home to many irises, and King Thutmose III, an avid gardener, was fascinated with the beauty of these flowers. He immortalized irises through sculptures at the Temple of Amon at Karnak and in the gardens of Egypt. 

Use of Iris flowers in Medicine and Aromachology:

Irises were valued by the early Indian and Egyptian people for their medicinal uses and for the manufacturing of perfumes. The perfumes, in particular, were used as offerings to the gods. 

By the 19th century, irises played a vital part in the history of Florence, Italy. Dried rhizomes of this plant were so popular such that the iris flower became the emblem of the city. This tradition carried on for centuries. 

The Iris: a Royal bloom

The iris flower was included on royal banners as the fleur-de-lis, a well-known symbol of French royalty. King Clovis I, the first Frank King, adopted the iris flower as an emblem in the early 500s when he converted to Christianity. In 1147, King Louis VII used the purple iris as well for his image. Fleurs-de-lis were destroyed by the revolutionaries as a symbol of their wrath toward the monarchy during the French Revolution. 

In England, Edward III used three fleurs-de-lis to his coat of arms in 1376. Also, a famous painting of Elizabeth I of England presents the queen in a gown embroidered with iris flowers. 

Orris roots, the roots of irises, were also recognized in Germany for helping keep the beer fresh. 

The bearded iris flower (Iris germanica) is the official state cultivated flower of Tennessee. The well-known symbol fleur-de-lis, which took inspiration from the iris flower, is New Orleans’ emblem. 

Types of Iris Flowers

Types of Iris Flower

Irises showcase their stunning blooms from spring to early summer. With over 200 known species and countless cultivars, irises offer a broad spectrum of colors ranging from the most popular purple and blue to white, yellow, pink, red, orange, brown, and black. 

Generally, irises can be classified into two groups: bulb irises and rhizome irises. But how do these two distinct types differ? To put it simply, bulb irises grow from bulbs while rhizome irises grow from rhizomes.

Bulb Irises

Bulb type irises or bulbous irises are typically dormant after they have bloomed. They are also smaller than rhizome type irises, and they produce smaller flowers. Two of the most popular bulb irises are the Dutch irises and the Reticulata irises. 

Dutch Iris Flowers:

Dutch Iris Bulb

Dutch iris is perhaps the most common bulb type iris. Botanically known as Iris hollandica or Iris x hollandica, this category is, in fact, a group of hybrids of several irises, including Spanish iris. A favorite of many florists and flower enthusiasts, Dutch irises are a familiar sight in traditional flower shops or in iris floral arrangements.

Reticulata Iris Flowers:

Reticulata Iris Bulb

Reticulata irises, or also known as reticulated irises, are early bloomers that bloom in early spring along with snowdrops, glory-of-the-snow, and snow crocuses, and before tulips. Sometimes referred to as the dwarf irises, these plants are recognized for their smaller profile than other flowers and showy blooms. 

Rhizome Irises

Rhizome type irises or rhizome irises grow horizontally underground or partially underground and produce new shoots. They have overlapping, sword-like leaves. 

Rhizome irises can further be divided into three main groups depending on their flower characteristics: bearded iris, beardless iris, and crested iris. Learn about these different iris flower types below. 

Bearded Iris Flowers:

Bearded Iris Flowers

Bearded irises or Iris germanica are undeniably the most popular type of iris flowers. Apart from their easy-to-grow nature, this famed rhizome iris category offers floriferous blooms in a multitude of colors, such as red, orange, yellow, blue, purple, brown, white, black, and pink.

Bearded iris flowers have four major parts: the standards, falls, stigma flaps, and the distinct beard – which is lacking from the other types of iris flowers. The beard is, in fact, just soft hairs along the central part of the falls or lower petals. 

The bearded rhizome irises can further be classified into different sub-categories depending on their stature: tall bearded, intermediate bearded, short bearded, miniature bearded, and border bearded. 

Beardless Iris Flowers:

Beardless Iris Flowers

Unlike bearded irises, beardless iris flowers lack beards. They don’t have soft hairs on their falls, but they do have the so-called “signals” instead. The signal displays a bright color at the top of the falls, which helps this type of iris flowers attract bees.  

Some of the most prominent beardless irises are the water-loving Japanese iris (Iris kaempferi) and the Siberian iris (I. sibirica).

Crested Iris Flowers:

Crested Iris Flowers

Crested irises are perhaps the least common type of rhizome iris. Unlike the first two classifications of rhizome irises, they lack both beards and signals. Instead, they feature a raised tissue called ridge or cockscomb instead of beards or signals. 

Your guide to picking the perfect iris flowers

Iris Flower Symbolism - How to pick the best iris flowers for every gifting occasion

Irises would not be one of the most widely recognized gifting flowers if not for their unique charm. Available not just in many forms and sizes, irises also present a plethora of captivating colors that would quickly remind you of the beauty of spring. 

A single iris flower or a bouquet of colorful blooms is a sure way to brighten up anyone’s day. But finding the “perfect” iris flowers? Oh, it could be a bit of a challenge, right? When picking iris flowers as a gift, there are a few things to consider: the occasion, the message you want to convey, the symbols and meanings behind the color, and your level of relationship with the giftee. Here’s a quick guide on meanings and symbols of iris flower colors. 

Iris flower Meaning, Symbolism, and Colors

The name “iris” originates from a Greek word that translates to “rainbow,” which is only fitting considering the plenty of iris flower colors available. It also refers to the Greek goddess of the rainbow and messenger of the Olympian gods, Iris. 

Irises are the official birth flower for February.  

In the language of flowers, the iris flower generally symbolizes eloquence, hope,  wisdom, communication, and faith. The individual colors of this flower, on the one hand, convey different meanings. 

Blue Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

Blue Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

Not many flowers are accessible in their true blue colors, but irises are one of the few that naturally and profusely produce blue hues. Because of such, blue iris flowers are the most used color in iris bouquets. 

Blue irises are a known symbol of faith and hope. In some countries, particularly in Europe, they typify royalty. Thinking about surprising your wife with an iris flower arrangement? Then, make sure to include blue irises and make her feel like a queen. 

In ancient Egypt, blue iris flowers signify power. In Japan, they denote heroism since the blue color refers to blue blood. 

  • Birthdays
  • Wedding anniversaries
  • Engagement
  • Just because
  • Get well wishes

Purple Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

Purple Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

Another famed iris flower color is purple. A purple iris often signifies wisdom and compliment, but because of the close resemblance of purple to blue, it also symbolizes royalty. 

A bouquet of purple iris suits almost any celebration, but it is commonly gifted for birthday celebrations. Send purple flowers to someone celebrating a birthday and make her birthday even more special. 

Besides, purple iris flowers are considered as the 25th wedding anniversary flower. So if you are (or you know someone) celebrating 25 years of a wonderful marriage, then these alluring iris blooms are the perfect flower for that special event. 

  • Birthdays
  • First date
  • 25th wedding anniversary
  • Anniversaries
  • Mother’s Day

Yellow Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

Yellow Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

While other yellow flowers like carnations connotate a negative meaning, yellow irises symbolize passion. These flowers are your safest bet if you want to send flowers as a gift to your colleagues, co-workers, or employer as an appreciation of your work and workplace. 

Yellow iris flowers also symbolize pride and hope, which make them the go-to flower for someone celebrating achievements or for graduations. 

The bright yellow hues will surely lift up anyone’s mood, which makes yellow irises the perfect flower to send your friends and families your wishes for a fast recovery.

  • Graduations
  • Job promotions
  • Just because
  • Get well soon wishes

White Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

White Iris Flower Meaning and Symbolism

White iris flowers are ideal for bridal bouquets not only because they are elegant-looking, but also because these blooms signify purity or a pure heart just like most white flowers. 

A bouquet of elegant white irises also suits a sympathy message or get well wishes. Send white irises to someone who unfortunately just lost a loved one, or to wish friends and families a speedy recovery. 

  • Get well soon wishes
  • Sympathy
  • Anniversaries
  • Weddings

Tips to Consider when Buying Irises

Tips to consider when buying iris flowers

Here are several things to look for when buying iris flowers:

  • Look for iris flowers that are in their ‘pencil tip’ stage or when a line of color outlines the sheathing leaves. 
  • Avoid irises with brown petal tips and unopened, soft blooms. 
  • Since floral qualities vary depending on their varieties, ask the variety of iris flowers you’re getting. Pick one that suits your location best. 
  • Avoid blooms with yellow foliage. This can be a sign of poor handling, improper storage, or an unhealthy plant. 

What other flowers go well with irises? 

Irises are famed cut flowers perfect in floral arrangements like bouquets, centerpieces, and even corsages. They look perfectly attractive to send alone, but they look as equally gorgeous with other cut flowers. Some of the most common cut flowers often mixed with irises in floral bouquets are tulips and stargazer lilies. 

One example is blue irises mixed with red tulips for a contrast of colors. Or blue iris flowers with yellow stargazer lily flowers for a picturesque arrangement. Other blooms like traditional white daisies and mini carnations can complete the look. 

For an elegant arrangement, combine irises with white roses and lilies with magnolia leaves. Or integrate purple irises into a bouquet of purple carnations and statice stems for a romantic arrangement. 

How to Care for Iris Flowers

How to Care for Iris Flowers

Iris flowers instantly add an exotic vibe and unique look to a bouquet or any floral arrangement – and this makes them a florist favorite. Their distinctive shapes make them one-of-a-kind and the perfect form flowers in floral designs. Iris are also great line flowers to accentuate a floral arrangement. 

When ordering iris flower delivery, typically, the iris flowers will last 5 to 7 days if taken care of properly. Here are some useful iris flower care tips to maximize the attractiveness of these blooms:

  • As quickly as you get home with fresh cuts of irises, place the wrapped flowers in water to hydrate them while you get a vase ready. 
  • Place irises in a clean vase with clean water. 
  • You can add a packet of flower food to extend irises’ bloom life. 
  • Recut the stems at a slanting position to your desired length to induce water uptake. Shorter stems mean more water uptake. 
  • Remove any foliage submerged underwater as it will only rot and may promote bacteria build-up in the water. 
  • Irises are thirsty flowers, so check the water frequently and add more water as needed. 
  • Change the water regularly. When changing the water, make sure to also clean the stems by rinsing them carefully. You can also recut the stems underwater for water uptake.  

Petal Republic’s flower and plant guides:

Looking for a particular stem or in need of some inspiration on the best blooms for a certain occasion? Check out Petal Republic’s expert flower guides to Roses, Bouvardia, Ranunculus, Lilies, Borage, Clovers, Freesia, Anemone, Begonia, Tulips, Orchids, Carnations, Coreopsis, Gerbera Daisies, Gladiolus, and Peonies.  

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