Everything You Need to Know About Growing Coneflowers
Easy-going coneflowers are the perfect plant for beginners to get their hands on as they are very forgiving and require little maintenance once established. They are drought-hardy and will survive cold winters to spring into life again and again. This guide will cover everything you need to know about how to grow coneflowers in your own garden at home, including planting, soil, watering, light, fertilizing, and over-winter care.
- Coneflower Basics
- Planting Coneflowers
- Caring for Coneflowers
- End Of Season Coneflower Care
- Growing Coneflowers As Cut Flowers
- How to Grow Coneflowers FAQs:
- Growing Coneflowers – The Final Word
What Are Coneflowers?
Coneflowers are known botanically as Echinacea, flowering perennials from the Daisy family (Asteraceae). There are ten species all found in eastern and central North America, growing on the prairies and close to forests and woodlands. Many species are also grown commercially for their medicinal value and ornamental value in the garden.
What Do Coneflowers Symbolize?
Coneflowers are named for their center spiky ‘cones’, and their botanical name Echinacea is derived from the Greek for ‘sea urchin’ or the Latin for ‘hedgehog’. You can see clearly the flower’s sea urchin and hedgehog appearance when they bloom. Coneflowers are associated with healing due to their medicinal properties, health, and strength.
Echinacea is well known for being used for colds and flu, but other benefits have been attributed to the plants, including properties to treat migraines, inflammation, and pain. The plants have been used for centuries by native Americans from the areas where they grow naturally. They have also been linked to other maladies, but there has been limited research done on these.
Echinacea has plenty of anti-oxidants and contains valuable compounds that may improve immunity and reduce blood sugar levels.
Toxicity And Edibility
The roots and leaves are used to make herbal teas, with the roots having the highest concentration of healthy compounds. The petals of the flowers are often used in salads and in baking for a touch of color.
For more, see our in-depth guide to the uses and benefits of coneflowers.
In some people, Coneflowers can cause irritation in the stomach, dizziness, and nausea. It may also cause an allergic reaction and exacerbate asthma systems, making breathing difficult. It’s imperative that before taking any natural plant material, you consult your doctor.
The plant is not considered toxic to pets. However, in large doses, it could have adverse effects on animals.
Types Of Coneflowers
Out of the ten species of coneflowers, Echinacea purpurea is the most popular. These have been hybridized to make the most amazing array of colors for the garden.
Here are some of the most popular hybrids available:
- Cheyenne Spirit – beautiful bloomers in shades of white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, and red.
- Cone-fections Hot papaya – fragrant, long-lasting pom-pom flowers in a reddish orange color.
- Pow Wow – a series in ‘Wild Berry’ for bright pink blooms or ‘White’ for creamy white flowers being the most popular.
- Double Decker – a double flower appears from the center in the second growing season, making these unique.
- Sombrero Salsa – a stunning shade of red. There are also other colors in the ‘Sombrero’ range to look out for.
- Ruby Giant – bright pink flowers with a ruby red center.
- Ferris Wheel – pretty orange to yellow cones with white petals that flourish on the ends like sparkling fireworks.
- Pink Double Delight – fluffy pink centers surrounded by lighter pink petals that fade to lavender as they age.
- Maui Sunshine – the brightest yellow petals with bright orange cones for a splash of sunshine in the garden.
- Tomato soup – a stunning tomato red color that’s hard to beat for brightness and boldness in a landscape.
- Green Jewel – tinged with green, these flowers boast green centers with cream to green petals. An unusual flower that is captivating.
The Coneflower Flowering Season
Depending on the variety, the flowering season can last anything from the beginning of spring until autumn. Once they have finished flowering, the seedheads are quite beautiful, and they will self-seed for the following year. The seedheads are also enjoyed by birds.
How Big Do Coneflowers Grow?
These fast-growing plants will grow to anything between 2 – 4 feet in height and 2 – 3 feet wide. There are a few dwarf varieties that will grow smaller.
Suitable USDA Growing Zones And Native Range
Most echinacea can grow in USDA hardiness zones from 3 – 8, but some varieties will grow up to Zone 10.
Growing Coneflowers From Seed Vs. Nursery Plants
Coneflowers can be grown from seed or planted out as nursery plants. Both are available. If sowing seed, they can be started indoors 8 – 10 weeks before spring starts, so they are ready to get into the ground early.
- Fill seed trays with seed germinating mix and dampen.
- Sow seed in the trays and cover with an ¼ inch soil.
- Keep the soil moist and warm (65F – 70F) while the seeds sprout.
- Within 10 – 20 days, the seeds should have sprouted. Thin out if necessary.
- Give them plenty of light and use grow lights if you have them.
- When the seedlings have at least two true leaves, they can be transplanted into growing pods made with biodegradable materials so they can be transplanted straight into the garden outdoors when they have developed enough root power and are strong.
Sow directly into the garden in mid- to late-summer:
- Prepare the soil with plenty of organic matter and rake smooth to remove any rocks or plant material.
- Sow seeds evenly and cover with ¼ inch of soil. Firm down and water in well. Keep moist until the seedlings emerge in 10 – 20 days. After that, follow the planting guidelines.
Where To Buy Coneflowers And Seed
All good nurseries will have echinacea seeds and seedlings or even bigger plants that can be purchased. There are also companies online that you can purchase seed from.
Can I Grow Coneflowers In Pots?
Coneflowers have long tap roots, so they are often not considered for containers. However, they can certainly be grown in large containers with enough depth for their roots to grow. Make sure the container also has plenty of drainage.
When To Plant Coneflowers
Coneflowers need to settle in well and form healthy, sturdy roots before winter sets in. Plant any time from spring until early autumn and plant with enough space between them to allow for good air circulation.
Plant in a position that gets full sun for at least 6-8 hours a day. They will handle a bit of shade, but the flowers will not be as prolific.
When planting, add plenty of compost to the soil. They will do in many different soil types, but do not like too much moisture and a lack of air circulation in the soil. The added compost will make the soil friable and provide extra drainage. They prefer a neutral pH.
Staking And Supporting Requirements
Coneflowers are sturdy if kept in optimal health and will not need to be supported by any staking or trellis. They may need protection from wind and harsh sunlight when first planted until they get used to their position.
Suitable Or Recommended Companion Plants
As part of a perennial garden, coneflowers will stand out and be good companions to many other plants. Plant with other flowering plants like coreopsis, salvias, phlox, and others. Also, think about ornamental grasses and leafy plants like heuchera and coleus.
Because they are drought-resistant, they will also do well with succulent and semi-succulent plants like sedums and herbs like Russian sage and Bee Balm. They are excellent pollinators and will attract their fair share of bees and butterflies.
Caring for Coneflowers
When planting, make sure to keep the watering up so that they settle in well to their environment. Water thoroughly and deeply at least once a week to get the plants to set their tap roots into the soil. Surface watering will not get the roots to move downwards, so deep watering is essential. Water in the early morning to allow the leaves to dry out by the heat of the day. They are drought-resistant once established.
Avoid overfertilizing these plants. Instead use limited slow-release fertilizer when new growth appears. Compost every spring, and they will continue to perform. Overfertilizing may make the plants become leggy.
Pruning And Deadheading Coneflowers
The seed pods of coneflowers are bird feeders and can be left on the plants. When spring comes along, the plants will do well with pruning to make them bushier and produce more blooms.
Keep the plants tidy by deadheading some of the blooms and keeping the last on the plants to dry out for the birds. By deadheading, you can force the plant to make new flowers. If you don’t want the plants to seed themselves, make sure to cut off all the blooms when they are spent.
Pests And Diseases
Coneflowers are tough and not susceptible to pests and diseases. However, there are times when even the tough plants are not able to handle certain pests. Look out for these:
- Aphids – attack new growth and suck the sap out of stems and shoots. New flowers will be compromised and deformed. Control with a good spray with soapy water or insecticidal soap.
- Whiteflies – a pest that sucks the sap out of the leaves and flowers and usually hide on the underside of leaves. They stunt the growth of the plants, and the leaves may turn yellow. Dust the leaves with sulfur powder and sprinkle around the base of the plants to deter whiteflies.
- Fusarium Wilt – caused by a fungus Fusarium oxysporum that lives in the soil. The fungus gets into the roots and moves up the stems of the plants clogging the cells and causing the leaves to yellow, usually only on one side of the plant. There are a few bio fungicides that can be used to try and treat the plant, or it may be necessary to remove and destroy the plants so that they do infect any other plants in the area.
- Japanese Beetles – easily identified by their metallic green coloring, they eat the foliage leaving big holes behind. Try removing them by hand and drowning them in soapy water, or use a product specially formulated to control these beetles.
- Eriophyid Mites – distorted or damaged flowers may be a sign of these mites that live in flower buds and feed on the sap. You can cut off infected flowerheads or treat them with insecticidal soap.
Coneflowers are known for their ability to self-seed. However, they can be divided if you prefer a different approach.
Divide coneflowers in late spring or in autumn. For the best results, divide only every 3-5 years as the clumps get overgrown.
- Water the plants the day before dividing day.
- Work around the plant with a spade and dig out with as much of the root ball as possible.
- Shake off any loose dirt and dunk the plant in a bucket of water so that you can see the roots clearly and have an idea of how many plants to divide into.
- Divide the plant into reasonably-sized plants and prepare the holes for replanting, adding extra compost to the holes.
- Trim any long growth before replanting.
- Water in well.
End Of Season Coneflower Care
Coneflowers will go dormant in the cold of winter and resprout again in the spring. To ensure they have the care to do this, they need to be cut back in late autumn 3 – 6 inches from the ground. If you would like to keep the seedheads for birds to feed on in the winter, only cut back in spring, but this will reduce the blooming time in the summer.
Keep the soil around the plants mulched through the winter to protect the roots from the harshest cold and water occasionally up to once every two weeks in normal temperatures, but more if it’s dry and warm.
These are tough plants and will survive cold winters and spring to life in time to produce another spectacular set of blooms.
Growing Coneflowers As Cut Flowers
Coneflowers make excellent cut flowers lasting up to 2 weeks in a vase. The ornamental value of the seed pods is also a great addition to dried arrangements and winter bouquets.
Remove all the foliage that will be underwater. Use a suitable container half filled with warm water and cut the stems underwater using a sharp, clean pair of secateurs or a sharp knife. Add a dose of floral food and allow the stems to hydrate for a couple of hours before arranging them in a vase.
Keep away from fruit and vegetables that will give off ethylene gases which will reduce the length of time fresh flowers last.
Once the flower petals have wilted in an arrangement, simply pull them off and use the seed heads in your arrangement. They will dry out and can be used for a long time like this.
How to Grow Coneflowers FAQs:
Where is the best place to plant coneflowers?
Any place that has morning sun and afternoon shade are ideal for coneflowers. They like at least 6 – 8 hours of sunlight a day. Naturally, they are found close to woodlands, so will do with a bit of shade.
How long do they live?
They can live for up to 40 years in the wild. In the garden, divide them every 3-5 years, and you will have plants for decades.
Why should they not bloom the first year?
It is advisable to cut all the flowers off the plant for the first year. This can be hard, but the plant will thank you and produce better plants and more flowers in the second year.
Growing Coneflowers – The Final Word
Coneflowers are one of the prettiest flowering perennials for a garden. The range of colors they come in is stunning, and they form perfect blooms that are beautiful to look at and attract pollinators like bees and butterflies to the garden. They are hardy and tough and very low maintenance with a few rules. They are definitely worth the effort of growing in a garden and will be perfect for a perennial meadow planted with other flowering plants and grasses.