Everything You Need to Know About Cutting Zinnia Flowers for Floral Arrangements
Zinnias are some of the most cheerful and charming cut flowers that you can grow. These fantastic flowers are easy to cultivate as a cut flower crop for both novice and experienced gardeners. You can even take a cut-and-come-again approach to enjoy a bountiful harvest throughout the season. Moreover, zinnia cut flowers have a long vase life, mainly if you harvest them correctly. In this article, we’ll run through everything you need to know about when and how to cut zinnia flowers for a vase or bouquet floral arrangement.
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- How to Cut Zinnias for a Vase or Bouquet – The Essentials
- About Zinnias
- Cultivating Zinnias in Your Garden
- Best Tools for Cutting Zinnia Flowers
- When to Cut Zinnias for Cut Flowers
- Step-by-Step Guide to Cutting Zinnia Flowers
- How Long Will Cut Zinnias Last For?
- Tips for Extending the Life of Zinnia Cut Flowers
- How Do You Preserve or Dry Cut Zinnias?
- Wrapping Up
How to Cut Zinnias for a Vase or Bouquet – The Essentials
Harvest zinnias for cut flowers once the stems are firm but before the flowers are fully open. Always use clean, sharp tools and cut towards the bottom of the stem. Harvest early in the morning and make cuts at a 45-degree angle. Zinnia cut flowers last for approximately 7 to 12 days in a vase.
Zinnias belong to the sunflower tribe (Heliantheae) of the aster or daisy family (Asteraceae). The Zinnia genus contains 22 accepted species and was named after the 18th Century German botanist Johann Gottfried Zinn. Most types of zinnias produce gorgeous crops of cut flowers.
Zinnias are flowering annuals with composite single, double, or semi-double flowers that bloom from early summer until fall. Composite flowers have central florets that are surrounded by rays of brightly-colored petals. Zinnia flowers come in several colors, including pink, purple, orange, red, green, and white. These flowers can reach up to 4 feet in height and take around 40 to 60 days to flower from seed. They’re also considered non-toxic to humans, pets, and other animals.
Most zinnia species originated in Mexico and now grow throughout the Southwestern United States and parts of Central and South America. Zinnias love hot, sunny conditions and can tolerate droughts. Zinnias are in flower from early summer until the first frosts arrive in the fall.
Zinnias are associated with romantic love and affection for friends. In Victorian flower language, zinnias communicated affection and a desire to see absent friends. Zinnia flowers are edible and also attract pollinators such as bees and hoverflies.
Cultivating Zinnias in Your Garden
Zinnias are exceptionally low-maintenance annuals that can yield large crops of cut flowers. Zinnias need 6 to 8 hours of full sun daily and prefer well-draining, fertile soils. Water zinnias once a week and fertilize them every one or two months to get the best possible blooms.
Harvesting zinnias for cut flowers actually encourages the plant to produce more blooms. Leave some flowers on the plant for seasonal interest but deadhead any wilting or spent flowers. Zinnias won’t need cutting back because they’re annuals that die off when the first frost hits in the fall.
Best Tools for Cutting Zinnia Flowers
A sharp pair of secateurs or pruning shears are ideal for cutting zinnia flowers. It’s vital to use clean tools to prevent the spread of common zinnia diseases and pests. Sterilize your shears with a 5% bleach solution before cutting your zinnias. Make sure your tools are sharp to make clean cuts that won’t weaken the plant.
When to Cut Zinnias for Cut Flowers
You can cut zinnias at any time during the flowering season, which runs from early summer until fall. To get the longest possible vase life, cut zinnia stems with flowers that aren’t yet fully open. The flowers will continue to open in the vase, helping the display last longer.
It’s important only to cut mature zinnia stems for cut flowers. You can use the “wiggle test” to check if a stem is suitable for cutting. Hold the zinnia stem a few inches below the flower head and gently wiggle it.
If the stem feels firm and the flower doesn’t move, it’s ready for cutting. But if the flower wobbles a lot and the stem feels soft and floppy, leave it for a few days. Then try again.
The best time to cut zinnias for cut flowers is early in the morning. Flower stems hold the most water at this time of day. Once the afternoon’s heat hits, the stem will rapidly lose water, deteriorating its vase life.
Step-by-Step Guide to Cutting Zinnia Flowers
- Ensure that your pruning shears or secateurs are clean and sharp before cutting.
- Fill a bucket or other suitable container with clean lukewarm water.
- Look for stems with flowers that aren’t yet fully open. Give them a gentle shake to check the firmness of the stem.
- Find a bud joint towards the bottom of the stem and make a 45-degree cut above the joint. Cut the stem as long as possible so you can resize it later. This also allows your zinnia to produce new flowers.
- Remove most of the leaves from the stem, leaving one or two pairs of leaves near the flower head. Remove any stem offshoots as well, even if they have unopened buds.
- Place the cut zinnia stem into your container of lukewarm water to keep the stem from dying.
- Take a clean, sterile vase and fill it with lukewarm water. Mix in some flower food or preservative.
- Cut your zinnia stems to size to fit the vase. Always cut at a 45-degree angle to help the stem absorb water more efficiently.
- Place your zinnia stems in the vase and enjoy!
How Long Will Cut Zinnias Last For?
Cut zinnia flowers can have a long vase life, so you can enjoy them for several days. If kept in optimal conditions, cut zinnias can last between 7 and 12 days in a vase. Keep them somewhere cool, dry, and away from direct sunlight. Change the water in the vase regularly to keep your zinnias hydrated.
Tips for Extending the Life of Zinnia Cut Flowers
Here are a few tips to help you extend the vase life of your zinnia cut flowers:
Change Water Regularly
When using zinnias as cut flowers, it’s vital to keep them properly hydrated. Use lukewarm water and change it every 1 to 2 days. Cutting the stem at a 45-degree angle increases the surface area, helping the stem absorb more water.
Never let your cut zinnia stems run out of water. Whenever you change the water, it’s worth adding flower food or preservatives. This provides more nutrients to help sustain the stems a bit longer.
For more tips on extending the life of your cut zinnia stems, check out this comprehensive guide.
Keep the Vase Out of Sunlight
If your zinnia vase is left in direct or bright sunlight, your stems will lose water more quickly. This causes them to wilt and die. Keep the vase in a cool, shaded spot to help your cut zinnias last as long as possible. Try to keep the temperature as stable as possible and avoid drafty areas near air or window vents.
Boiling Water Treatment
As well as losing water, cut zinnia flowers can lose sap, which deprives the stem of energy. To help your zinnia stems retain their sap, use a quick boiling water bath to scald them. Before placing your stems in a vase, dip the cut end of the stem into boiling water for about 20 seconds.
Add Floral Preservatives
Add floral preservatives or flower food to the water in your zinnia vase to help the blooms last longer. These products nourish your zinnia stems, keeping them strong and extending the vase life.
Use Alum Powder
You can also use alum powder, known as potassium aluminum sulfate, to extend the vase life of your zinnia stems. Alum powder encourages cut flower stems to absorb more water and nutrients, helping to keep them alive. Add some alum powder each time you change the water in the vase.
How Do You Preserve or Dry Cut Zinnias?
Another way to enjoy your crop of cut zinnia flowers is to dry them. You can hang them upside down in a cool, dark place or use silica gel and a cardboard box. Silica gel is a desiccant that removes moisture from something to preserve it.
Let’s look at how you can dry your cut zinnias using silica gel and a cardboard box:
- Select a firm zinnia stem and cut it about 2 inches below the open flower with clean, sharp shears.
- Fill the bottom of a cardboard box with silica gel, which you can get from craft stores.
- Place your cut zinnia flower heads upside down in the cardboard box so that the flower heads and touching the gel.
- Completely cover the blooms with another layer of silica gel, leaving the stem visible.
- Place the box somewhere cool and dark for approximately two weeks until your zinnias have dried.
- Alternatively, you can cut some zinnia stems and tie them in a bundle. Then hang them upside down in a cool, dark place until they’re completely dry. This usually takes a few weeks.
For more, see our in-depth guide to drying and preserving zinnia flowers.
If you want gorgeous cut flowers to brighten up your home, zinnias are ideal. These beautiful flowers can be harvested throughout the season using a cut-and-come-again approach. Choose firm stems with flower heads that haven’t fully opened and cut them at a 45-degree angle. Cut zinnia flowers can last 7 to 12 days in a vase as long as their water is changed regularly.
Edd is a budding content writer and gardener living in the United Kingdom. He has a bachelor's degree in Creative and Professional Writing and has written for several gardening publications online. He is passionate about nature and sustainability with a focus on gardening and wildlife.