In this guide, we’re going to take you through everything you need to know about how to grow and care for Dumb Cane plants, including planting, soil considerations, light preferences, fertilizing, pruning, and propagating.
Dieffenbachia, also known as Dumb Cane, is the plant for you if you’re tired of standard green foliage in predictable shapes and patterns. These tropical leafy plants are perfectly suited to indoor growing conditions and are incredibly easy to care for, even for complete beginners.
The wide variety of this genus makes them the ideal collectors plant. Large leaves or small, striped or spotted, you’ll find something to suit your interior design.
- How to Grow Dumb Cane at Home – The Essentials:
- About Dumb Cane Plants (Dieffenbachia)
- How to Grow Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia)
- How to Care for Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia) at Home
- Common Dumb Cane Problems & How to Treat Them
- Essential Tools
- Growing & Caring for Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia) FAQs:
- Final Thoughts
How to Grow Dumb Cane at Home – The Essentials:
|Botanical Name:||Dieffenbachia spp|
|Also Known As:||Dumb Cane|
|Light Requirements:||Moderate to bright indirect light.|
|Temp & Humidity:||65-80F, no specific humidity requirements.|
|Watering Needs:||Water 1-2 times per week in spring and summer when the top inch of soil dries out.|
|Soil Preferences:||Well-draining soil that retains some moisture. A mixture of potting soil, coconut coir, and perlite is ideal.|
|Fertilizing:||Fertilize with a balanced liquid fertilizer 1-2 times per month according to package instructions.|
|Growth Expectations:||Around 4 feet tall, depending on the variety. Reaches maturity in 2-3 years.|
|Toxicity:||Highly toxic to humans and pets.|
About Dumb Cane Plants (Dieffenbachia)
Dieffenbachia is a genus containing more than 50 species of perennial flowering plants.
These tropical plants are grown indoors and outdoors worldwide for their impressive leafy foliage and ease of care. From the family Araceae, they are related to other tropical foliage plants like the Monstera or Peace Lily.
The common name Dumb Cane comes from the highly toxic nature of the plant that results in an inability to speak when ingested, as well as a range of other symptoms.
This side effect is caused by raphides (pointed calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals) also found in many other plant families.
This genus can be found growing in tropical rainforests around the world, particularly in South America.
Throughout history, their toxicity has been leveraged for terrible deeds. Slave owners in the Caribbean allegedly used the plant to torture slaves, while the Nazis considered its use against war prisoners during World War 2.
Today, it is mainly cultivated as a houseplant but can also be found gracing shade gardens outdoors in temperate climates.
Plants in the Dieffenbachia genus have broad oval-shaped leaves in a range of colors. Most varieties and cultivars are green, with some featuring cream or yellow coloring.
These perennials produce flowers similar to other plants in the arum family, but they are primarily grown for their foliage.
The stems are thick and can grow quite tall, especially when planted outdoors. The size and appearance of these stems match other plants like Dracaena fragrans or Saccharum officinarum that also feature the term ‘cane’ in the common name.
The Dieffenbachia genus is full of interesting species to choose from, widely available to purchase as houseplants.
The most popular cultivar is ‘Camille’, sporting large leaves with creamy centers slowly fading to dark green edging. The ‘Tropic Snow’ Dieffenbachia is another popular plant with massive mottled green and yellow foliage.
Both types have been awarded the Royal Horticultural Society’s ‘Award of Garden Merit. However, there are plenty of other less common options in a range of sizes, colors, and patterns.
Dumb Cane, thanks to its tropical climate and stunning foliage, is mainly found indoors, growing as a houseplant. Their size makes them a great feature plant, with more mature Dieffenbachias easily filling an empty corner.
They are also popular landscaping plants in shade gardens, growing amongst the arum family’s ferns and other tropical plants.
All plants in the Dieffenbachia genus are very toxic to humans and animals. The sap can cause skin irritations when touched. When the foliage or stems are chewed, swelling, drooling and numbing are common symptoms. Severe irritation may result in hospitalization.
While symptoms may not be life-threatening in most cases, keeping the plant away from animals and children and washing your hands thoroughly after planting or repotting is vital.
How Long Will Dumb Cane Typically Live?
If well taken care of, Dumb Canes can live well over 20 years indoors. Many are known to reach over 40 years old. Keep your plant healthy, and it may even outlive you, becoming a family heirloom.
How to Grow Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia)
While size is mainly variety-dependent, you can expect your Dieffenbachia to grow to around 4 feet indoors.
Outdoors, without space restrictions and in the right conditions, they can grow to around 10 feet tall.
These plants are quick growers, reaching 2 feet in height in under a year. Leaf size and shape also depend on variety, but most have large leaves around 20 inches in length.
What to Do Before Planting
Ensure you have a bright spot in your home with enough space to accommodate the large cascading leaves.
While they can tolerate moderate light, Dieffenbachias grow best when given bright light throughout the day. They can even take short periods of direct sunlight but should be in indirect sunlight for most of the day.
As these plants grow quite tall, large pots are best. As a general rule, the pot should never be smaller than half the height or width of the plant. The pot should also have several drainage holes to prevent water pooling at the bottom or around the roots.
As the plant’s sap can cause skin irritation, it’s also recommended to grab a pair of gardening gloves before you get started.
What’s the Best Soil Mix?
Like most leafy houseplants, Dieffenbachias need airy, well-draining soil. Regular garden soil is not suitable as it typically does not drain well enough for plants in containers and can harbor pests and diseases that impact your plant’s health.
Standard potting soil is far better than garden soil but is better suited to outdoor containers than indoor conditions. It’s best to make your own soil mix by combining two parts of potting soil with one part coconut coir and one part perlite.
Coconut coir improves drainage while retaining up to 10 times its weight in moisture. Perlite, made from pieces of expanded volcanic glass, also improves drainage by increasing the spaces between the soil particles. This mixture will retain enough water to keep your plant satisfied while preventing water from collecting around the roots.
How to Plant
Grab your gloves and get ready to plant by following these steps:
- Clean the new pot with soap and water – whether new or reused – to prevent the growth of bacteria or the spread of harmful germs.
- Prepare the soil mixture by combining potting soil, coconut coir, and perlite until evenly mixed.
- Fill one-third of the pot with the prepared potting mixture.
- Remove the plant from its existing container and shake off the excess soil. If it is difficult to remove, gently squeeze the sides of the pot to release the plant.
- Place the plant inside the pot and fill in the gaps with more soil mix until it reaches just below the pot’s rim. Firm down the soil around the base gently to remove any air pockets.
- Water thoroughly and place the plant in a spot with bright, indirect light.
Dieffenbachia can grow in any spot with moderate to bright indirect light. Used to growing in dappled shade in their natural habitat, they can also grow with small amounts of direct light – mostly in winter when sunlight intensity is lower. A bright spot in front of a south-facing window covered by a sheer curtain is ideal.
The large leaves will turn toward the light and will only typically grow on the side facing the light, so it’s important to rotate the plant regularly every week or so to ensure even growth.
Some varieties can handle lower light than others. If you only have available space with moderate to low light, check which type is most suitable for these conditions before choosing the right plant.
Temperature and Humidity
These tropical plants love warm temperatures between 65F and 80F. They can even handle higher temperatures without too much trouble, as long as they are well-watered.
What they cannot handle is cold. Any temperatures below 50F will result in permanent damage to the foliage. Ensure they are placed in a warm room away from cold windows during winter.
Dumb Canes are some of the few tropical houseplants that are not fussed about humidity. They do not mind dry weather if the soil contains enough moisture to keep the plant going. Keep temperature, light, and water consistent, and they will remain happy and healthy year-round.
How to Care for Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia) at Home
As they come from rainforest environments, Dumb Canes prefer moist soil to maintain their glossy leaves. In spring and summer, when temperatures are high, this means watering around once or twice a week. It’s best to check the soil regularly and water when the top inch of soil has dried out.
Be careful not to overwater as these plants don’t like soggy soil. Excessive watering can lead to root rot and leaf drop, ultimately killing the plant. Wait for the top layer of soil to dry out, especially in winter, before watering again.
Dieffenbachia can fit nicely into your regular houseplant fertilizing routine. A general balanced fertilizer should be applied at least once a month in spring and summer for healthy growth. You can also use a fertilizer higher in nitrogen to boost the foliage, but this may result in a nutrient imbalance over time.
If growth is slow or you want the largest leaves possible, you can fertilize more regularly – every two weeks or so. Ensure you follow the instructions on the packaging and dilute the fertilizer correctly to avoid burning the roots with excessive nutrients.
Dieffenbachias do not need to be pruned often. Older leaves may die off as part of the plant’s natural life cycle. These can be removed by hand or left to fall off naturally. They will also produce flowers under bright light, which can be removed once they turn brown.
Dumb Canes can be propagated by stem cuttings. This is best done in spring or summer for quick root growth but can be done any time of year in suitable temperatures.
Start by removing any stems growing along the side of the plant with a clean, sharp knife. Lay the stem sideways in a pot filled with a light propagating mix – a combination of coconut coir, perlite, and vermiculite works best. Keep the soil moist until roots begin to develop, at which point it can be planted the right way up for new foliage growth.
In older plants, you can remove the top of the stem as it gets leggy. Strip any foliage on the bottom half of the stem and replant it in a regular houseplant potting mix. Adding rooting hormone to the bottom of the stem will encourage quicker root growth and improve your chances of success in propagating.
Dumb Canes need to be repotted when the roots outgrow the pot or when the soil breaks down. The roots will grow quickly during the first few years of growth, requiring repotting every one to two years. This will gradually decline as the plant ages, with the soil only requiring a top-up every three to four years.
To repot, follow the same process as when planting, choosing a pot one or two sizes up from the original. Match the new soil composition to the old soil as much as possible to prevent transplant shock. Water immediately after repotting and place the plant in the same spot to maintain the same conditions.
Common Dumb Cane Problems & How to Treat Them
Incorrect watering is the most common issue faced by Dumb Canes. Either overwatering or underwatering will cause the plant’s leaves to turn yellow and wilt. Check the soil moisture levels to determine which is more likely and alter your watering accordingly.
Incorrect lighting can also cause several problems. If growth is stunted and the plant stops producing new leaves, it is likely receiving too little light. Move it to a brighter spot to resolve the issue. The leaves may begin to droop and wilt if the plant gets too much sunlight too. In this case, place a sheer curtain in front of the window or move the plant away from the direct sunlight.
Dieffenbachia doesn’t encounter too many pest or disease problems. Webbing around the stems and leaves is indicative of a spider mite infestation. Spider mites are common indoor pests that affect most houseplants and can be removed by applying neem oil.
Use gardening gloves when handling this plant to prevent skin irritation. Always have a sharp pair of scissors or shears on hand to remove any old and dying leaves.
Growing & Caring for Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia) FAQs:
Are Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia) a good indoor plant?
Thanks to their love of shade and tropical conditions, Dieffenbachias make excellent indoor plants. They don’t mind lower humidity and some varieties even handle lower light conditions indoors, making them great for any indoor garden.
How big do Dumb Cane Plants get?
Outdoors these plants can reach over 10 feet tall but should stay around 4 feet tall indoors.
How fast do Dumb Cane grow?
In the first few years of growth, Dieffenbachia grows incredibly quickly, reaching around 2 feet in height in their first year. As the plant matures, growth will gradually slow.
Is Dumb Cane a rare plant?
As a genus, Dieffenbachia is not particularly rare, commonly found in nurseries around the world. However, there are many varieties and cultivars within the genus that are rare, making them ideal for collectors.
Are Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia) poisonous to dogs and other pets?
Dumb Cane is poisonous to animals and humans and should be kept away from pets and children at all times.
Can Dumb Cane tolerate low light?
Dieffenbachia typically prefers moderate to bright indirect light. However, some varieties can tolerate lower lighting conditions if all other needs are met.
Easy to care for and grow quickly and reliably, Dieffenbachia is an excellent houseplant for beginners and experienced gardeners alike. With so much variety in color and shape, it’ll be hard not to start your own collection.
Madison is a writer and editor with a Bachelor’s degree in History and Political Science. She writes and photographs for various online and print publications in the gardening sphere and is the author of the book The Next-Generation Gardener.